Cognitive strategies aim to deepen the understanding of the content within the domain studied, as well as improve retrieval and transfer of knowledge.
- Acquisition ( surface learning ): The processing that occurs when first encountering new knowledge e.g. reading, listening, imitation, highlighting, underlining, etc.
- Deeper understanding: The learner aims to make connections between new and prior knowledge to achieve deeper engagement. Strategies such as elaboration , organization , visualization and generation can be used.
- Consolidating: Integrating information into long term memory so that it can be more easily retrieved. Strategies might include practice testing , spaced practice , interleaving , rehearsal, seeking feedback from a teacher or coach.
- Application: Understanding patterns, similarities, and differences to transfer the knowledge to a new task in a different context.
The best results will be achieved not through the use of a single strategy, but a combination of strategies.